CALCULUS Understanding Its Concepts and Methods

Matrix

A matrix is a rectangular array. Matrices were first used as a kind of shorthand to record the coefficients of a system of linear equations in a form convenient for computation. For example, the matrix

A matrix with
*m*
rows and
*n*
columns is called an
*m × n*
matrix.
Matrices are also referred to as arrays. An
*m × *1
array is called a column vector; a
1* × n*
array is called a row vector.

The numbers or other mathematical expressions that appear in the matrix are
called the entries of the matrix. The entry in
the
*i*th
row and
*j*th
column is called the
*ij*th
entry.

Matrices are used extensively in mathematics, science, and engineering. They are also used in business applications to solve linear programming problems. Manipulation of matrices became the basis for what is now called linear algebra.

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Copyright © 2006 Darel Hardy, Fred Richman, Carol Walker, Robert Wisner. All rights reserved. Except upon the express prior permission in writing, from the authors, no part of this work may be reproduced, transcribed, stored electronically, or transmitted in any form by any method.